Employers may request an employee complete a medical examination when the examination is job-related and consistent with business necessity. 29 C.F.R. § 1630.10(a). The employer must have a reasonable belief that the employee's ability to perform their job is being impaired by a medical condition or that the employee poses a direct threat due to a medical condition.
A medical examination is also considered job-related and consistent with business necessity when—
It is important that an employer's belief that a medical condition is affecting an employee's ability to perform essential job functions be based on objective evidence. The Amendments Act added a provision that employers cannot screen out an applicant because of uncorrected vision unless it is job-related and consistent with business necessity. 29 C.F.R. § 1630.10(b).
When considering the reliability of information learned from another person, employers should consider—